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canterbury earthquake sequence

This disaster has proven that in the worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand.”. Therefore a new time varying earthquake hazard model, the EE model, was developed. The lines indicate the main fault models used in this paper and the beach balls are the first motion focal mechanisms recorded for each earthquake. Earthquake sequence unique to Canterbury . Police and volunteers worked to rescue people after Christchurch's earthquakes in 2011. 185 people lost their lives, over 7000 were injured. On 4 September 2010, a powerful earthquake struck near Darfield in Canterbury. It pays respect to those who lost their lives, those who were seriously injured and survivors. The memorial is a place to reflect on the 2010/2011 earthquakes that changed Greater Christchurch forever. For each catalogue, we identified magnitude thresholds and time periods for which the data can be expected to be complete. Annabel Begg. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010-present) and examines communication learnings to create recommendations for improvements in implementation for these campaigns in future. In our most complete dataset and with the preferred search criteria, 2% of large earthquake fulfil these criteria. As a consequence of the earthquake sequence the New papers on paleoseismology, active tectonics and tsunami research. Many of these research papers have PDF downloads available on the site. The Canterbury earthquake sequence that began in September 2010 caused significant land movement that affected property boundaries and the survey control network throughout the region. Due to on-going aftershock activity and the possibility of other triggered moderate to large earthquakes, the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard model was expected to grossly underestimate the level of ground shaking for the Canterbury region for the coming decades. As a consequence of the earthquake sequence the New Zealand National Seismic Hazard model was expected to grossly underestimate the level of ground shaking for the Canterbury region for the coming decades due to on-going aftershock activity and the possibility of other triggered moderate to large earthquakes. 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser et al. EQC acknowledged several times during this period that the scale … There was limited experience in dealing with the complexities of such an … The retrospective simulations are consistent with the observations. Because … We also fitted the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model to the Canterbury sequence. The tourism industry suffered significant losses as a consequence of the Canterbury earthquake sequence. How Professionals Have Helped to Prevent Recovery in Canterbury and Have Caused a Separate Disaster for Property Owners Adrian COWIE, New Zealand 1. “On behalf of the Government and all New Zealanders, I would like to thank everyone from Tonkin and Taylor who pitched in and helped in the aftermath of the devastating Canterbury earthquake and continue to assist in the ongoing recovery. Managing the long and complex recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence has been a devastating learning curve for the New Zealand government and all its recovery partners. Have a question or feedback? The range of the fitted parameters exceeded what we would have expected from averaging global earthquake sequences. To investigate how unusual late and large aftershocks are as observed in the Canterbury sequence, we used two global earthquake catalogues. Latest earthquake is #25940 being magnitude 2.43 ( II) at 33.12 km at 12:10am, about 23 hr 8 mins ago. Half of Christchurch's urban roads had to be rebuilt, 30% of the sewerage system was damaged and 32 million litres of water were lost when a major crack opened up in the floor of the city's largest reservoir. Those shakes, collectively known as the Canterbury earthquake sequence, were the biggest insured event in New Zealand history and at the time the 4 th most expensive insured, global natural disaster to ever occur. Kate was on the ground for Tonkin + Taylor mapping land damage and providing critical engineering advice for the Earthquake Commission and NZ Government from the first aftershock. Please get in touch. Our project set out to investigate the Canterbury sequence in the context of global earthquake statistics. Abstract. The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2010 – 2011) caused significant damage and loss of life in Christchurch, New Zealand. During our project we realised that many earthquakes, including 14 in the magnitude band 5‑5.9 in the first 24h following Darfield, had not been reported in the initial GeoNet catalogue. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), including the moment magnitude (M w ) 7.1 Darfield earthquake and M w 6.2, 6.0, 5.9, and 5.8 aftershocks, occurred on a suite of previously unidentified, primarily blind, active faults in … The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence – Recovery from Disaster. In comparison, the EE model expects about 1.3 M≥6.0 earthquakes in about the same area and time. Many events in the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence were sufficiently shallow and close to (or under) Christchurch to subject the city to very intense shaking (V: 1.7 g; H: 2.2 g). The 2010 Canterbury earthquake (also known as the Darfield earthquake) struck the South Island of New Zealand with a moment magnitude of 7.1 at 4:35 am local time on 4 September, and had a maximum perceived intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. We also identified further work required to better understand what effect the deficiencies of the real-time earthquake data have on the real-time forecasting models. We identified further work required to understand the time frame for which aftershock models can be usefully applied. The most destructive of these was the 22 February 2011 earthquake, centered close to Christchurch, in which 185 people died. We then searched for earthquake sequences using different search criteria. 2 Executive Summary The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. For the prospective simulations the expected number of M≥ 6.0 earthquakes in 50 years is up to six times higher than for the EE model. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has caused severe damage through much of the city, both in the residential areas comprising mostly the eastern suburbs, and also in the CBD. 4 minutes to read . We used the estimated parameters, as well as generic aftershock parameters for New Zealand to simulate ETAS earthquake sequences for the two-year duration of the catalogue, as well as for 50 years starting in September 2012. JP Morgan, Chase & Co ranked the CES as the third most costly earthquake event in history behind the 2011 Japanese subduction earthquake/tsunami and the 1994 Californian earthquakes. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. The Earthquake Commission (EQC) is New Zealand’s public insurer for natural disaster damage. Investigate how unusual late and large aftershocks are as observed in the Canterbury sequence. As a In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). * 10 km east of Waiau, Canterbury, New Zealand. The Canterbury Earthquake National Memorial was opened to the public at the sixth anniversary commemoration event on 22 February 2017. We first illustrated the deficiency of the initial catalogue by comparing the GeoNet data downloaded in January 2012 with the mainly finalised catalogue in September 2012. A Christophersen, D A Rhoades, S Hainzl, E G C Smith. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. CANTERBURY EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE Since the M w7.1 earthquake occurred on 4 September 2010, a sequence of significant earthquakes has struck the greater Christchurch region, as summarised in Table 1. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. The Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake of February 2011: preliminary report (Kaiser et al., 2012) Kinematic source studies of the ongoing (2010-2011) sequence of recent large earthquakes in Canterbury (Holden and Beavan, 2012) The Pegasus Bay aftershock sequence of the Mw 7.1 Darfield (Canterbury), New Zealand earthquake (Ristau et al., 2013) Greater Christchurch Group has released its Whole of Government report on the lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. Since the earthquake, an Engineering Advisory Group has been assembled, now working under the Department of Building and Housing. This confirms that while the Christchurch earthquake occurred with a time delay of 171 days and 42 km from the Darfield epicentre, this is not unique in the context of global earthquake occurrences. We also searched for large aftershocks within 1.1 magnitude units of the main shock that occurred at least as late and far away as the Christchurch earthquake relative to the Darfield earthquake. Depending on the search criteria, between 6 and 13 % of main shocks in the more complete catalogue had 3 or more aftershocks within 1.1 magnitude units, as observed in the Canterbury sequence. For Kate, there's one clear, key lesson to learn from the Christchurch earthquakes. YOU NEED JAVASCRIPT TO RUN THIS SITE. Tonkin + Taylor's Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Programme Leader, John Leeves and liquefaction expert, Dr Sjoerd van Ballegooy reflect on the unprecedented liquefaction damage that devastated Greater Christchurch. The Earthquake Commission received over 470,000 insurance claims. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. November 3, 2014 | Christoph Grützner in Paper. Investigate how unusual late and large aftershocks are, as observed in the Canterbury sequence. In the other dataset there were another couple of examples. It began a series of earthquakes and aftershocks lasting till around 2016. PLEASE ENABLE JAVASCRIPT IN YOUR INTERNET OPTIONS. The Canterbury, New Zealand Earthquake Sequence I: The Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake of 3 September 2010 and Aftershock Sequence John Ristau GNS Science Lower Hutt, New Zealand Introduction On 4 September 2010 at 04:35 NZST (3 September 16:35 UTC) the moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 Darfield earthquake occurred in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, … The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. Setting of the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The 6.3-magnitude earthquake may have been an aftershock of the 7.1-magnitude 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake.New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given … I would especially like to recognise the dedication of the team on the ground - they are doing a brilliant job. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. We identified further work required to better understand what effect the deficiencies of the real-time earthquake data have on the real‑time forecasting models. In our best dataset, 2% of large earthquake fulfil these criteria. This confirmed that although the M≥6.0 aftershocks in the Canterbury sequence occurred relatively far away from the main shock in space and time these differences were not unusual in global aftershock statistics. During our project we realised that many earthquakes in the first 24h following Darfield, including 14 in the magnitude band 5‑5.9, had not been reported in the initial GeoNet catalogue. EQC received over 470,000 claims, more than 15,000 families lost their homes, and repair costs were estimated at over $40 billion. All of the earthquakes occurred on previously To investigate how unusual late and large aftershocks are (such as those observed in the Canterbury sequence) we used two global earthquake catalogues. The first earthquake in September 2010 was the moment the ‘rubber hit the road’ for geotechnical engineer, Mike Jacka. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES) in 2010-2011 had all the ingredients for causing loss inflation. The report is a literature review of the published material related to the recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, and provides a whole of government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery … 27 Nov, 2013 6:10pm . The largest two earthquakes, magnitude (M) 7.1 on September 4th and the M 6.3 on February 22nd 2011 caused immediate and significant damage to the city of Christchurch. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. Some damaging aftershocks followed the main event, the strongest of which was a magnitude 6.3 shock known as the Christchurch earthquakethat occurred nearly six months later on 22 February 2011. In the other dataset there were another couple of examples. We slightly changed focus from deriving aftershock parameters from the global catalogue, to aftershock modelling in the Canterbury sequence to provide bounds for earthquake rates in the Canterbury region for the coming years and decades. 1 earthquake within a radius of 150km of central Christchurch over 24 hours. For each catalogue we identified magnitude thresholds and time periods for which the data can be expected to be complete. The probability for one or more M≥ 6.0 earthquakes in the 50 years starting in September 2012 ranges from 50% to 93% depending on the model. The widespread and complex land damage across Canterbury needed to be explained to and understood by property owners. We had two main objectives: Use aftershock parameters derived from global earthquake catalogues to provide bounds for earthquake rates in the Canterbury region for the coming years and decades. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has been a long-lived complex earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. This confirmed that the M≥6.0 aftershocks in the Canterbury sequence occurred relatively far away from the main shock in space and time but this is not too unusual in global aftershock statistics. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. We slightly changed focus from deriving aftershock parameters from the global catalogue, to modelling aftershocks in the Canterbury sequence to provide bounds for earthquake rates in the Canterbury region for the coming years and decades. The authors report on, and summarise, the effects that the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence had on the environment. In summary, the probability for one or more M≥ 6.0 earthquakes in the 50 years starting in September 2012 ranges from 50% to 93% depending on the model and model parameters. A primary More than 650,000 insurance claims … If you'd like to access a paper that doesn't have a download, use the research paper request form to ask for a copy. Tonkin + Taylor's Operations Manager for the Christchurch Earthquake Recovery Project, Shamus Wallace and his wife Lisa had two children after the earthquake sequence began. In the final analysis, it became clear that the most widespread and severe affects to infrastructure and land had been caused by repeated liquefaction events and the damage each one induced when millions of tonnes of silt and water spewed to the earth's surface. 6.3 magnitude earthquake part of aftershock sequence February the 22nd's devastating magnitude 6.3 earthquake centred southeast of Christchurch was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude 7.1 quake near Darfield, 40km west of the city, an earthquake geologist said today. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. The expected number ranged from 0.6 to 1.1, and totalled 2.3 for all sub sequences, which is an upper bound estimate due to the dependence of the events. Depending on the search criteria, between 6 and 13 % of main shocks in the more complete catalogue had 3 or more aftershocks within 1.1 magnitude units as observed in the Canterbury sequence. INTRODUCTION Christchurch, New Zealand. In space, the relative distance of Christchurch to the Darfield earthquakes was around the 80th percentile, and in time around the 85th percentile of all large aftershocks respective to their main shocks for the preferred search criteria. Photo / Christchurch Star Therefore a new time varying earthquake hazard model, called the EE model, was developed. Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB), Community and Public Health, New Zealand. M C Gerstenberger, GNS Science (EQC funded project 12/634). The repair and rebuilding of Canterbury continues and is expected to top $40 billion. The first earthquake occurred at the beginning of the New Zealand spring in September 2010 (when building projects typically start) followed by three more We then searched for earthquake sequences using different search criteria. Tonkin + Taylor’s Virginie Lacrosse found people really “got it” when she likened geotechnical engineers to doctors. He had done his Master’s degree at Canterbury University in earthquake engineering, specifically, liquefaction potential for Christchurch. Of these large earthquakes, around 20% had a larger relative distance than Christchurch to Darfield, and around 15% occurred later than 171 days. We identified further work required to investigate the applicability of aftershock models on the time-scale of decades, which is due to begin soon. The sequence began in September 2010, followed by a significant aftershock in February 2011 that caused an unprecedented and sustained reduction in tourism arrivals to the city of Christchurch and the wider region. We fitted the two relationships used in aftershock forecasting, the Omori-Utsu law for aftershock decay and the Gutenberg-Richter relation for the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes, to three subsets of the catalogue following M≥6.0 earthquakes. The Pegasus Bay aftershock sequence is the most recent aftershock sequence of the 2010 September 3 UTC moment magnitude (M w) 7.1 Darfield earthquake in the Canterbury region of New Zealand.The Pegasus Bay aftershock sequence began on 2011 December 23 UTC with three events of M w 5.4–5.9 located in the offshore region of Pegasus … The research comes from an “insider” perspective from someone who worked on these campaigns in Canterbury before the earthquakes. The 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), including the moment magnitude (M w) 7.1 Darfield earthquake and M w 6.2, 6.0, 5.9, and 5.8 aftershocks, occurred on a suite of previously unidentified, primarily blind, active faults in the eastern South Island of New Zealand. This confirms that while the Christchurch earthquake occurred with a time delay of 171 days and 42 km from the Darfield epicentre, this is not too unusual in global earthquake occurrences. Wellbeing recovery inequity following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence: repeated cross‐sectional studies. All four earthquakes caused lateral spreading to some degree; the most damaging earthquake occurred on 22 February 2011. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and their aftershocks can also be viewed. EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE A magnitude7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island on September 4, 2010; the epicenter was located near the town of Darfield, approximately 35 kilometers west of Christchurch on the previously unknown Greendale fault. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. Search … The paper is special in many ways: more. Jackson & Arizona are part of the generation of Christchurch children now know as 'the earthquake babies'. We used the fitted parameters to calculate the number of M≥6.0 earthquakes expected to occur in the 50 years starting in September 2012 for the different combinations of parameters. We also searched for large aftershocks within 1.1 magnitude units of the main shock that occurred at least as late and far away as the Christchurch earthquake relative to the Darfield earthquake. 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